Concilium Chalcedonense
451 AD
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The sacred and great and universal synod by God’s grace and by decree of your most religious and Christ-loving emperors Valentinian Augustus and Marcian Augustus assembled in Chalcedon, metropolis of the province of Bithynia, in the shrine of the saintly and triumphant martyr Euphemia, issues the following decrees. In establishing his disciples in the knowledge of the faith, our lord and saviour Christ said: “My peace I give you, my peace I leave to you”‘, so that no one should disagree with his neighbour regarding religious doctrines but that the proclamation of the truth would be uniformly presented. But the evil one never stops trying to smother the seeds of religion with his own tares and is for ever inventing some novelty or other against the truth; so the Master, exercising his usual care for the human race, roused this religious and most faithful emperor to zealous action, and summoned to himself the leaders of the priesthood from everywhere, so that through the working of the grace of Christ, the master of all of us, every injurious falsehood might be staved off from the sheep of Christ and they might be fattened on fresh growths of the truth. This is in fact what we have done. We have driven off erroneous doctrines by our collective resolution and we have renewed the unerring creed of the fathers. We have proclaimed to all the creed of the 318; and we have made our own those fathers who accepted this agreed statement of religion -- the 150 who later met in great Constantinople and themselves set their seal to the same creed. Therefore, whilst we also stand by the decisions and all the formulas relating to the creed from the sacred synod which took place formerly at Ephesus, whose leaders of most holy memory were Celestine of Rome and Cyril of Alexandria we decree that pre-eminence belongs to the exposition of the right and spotless creed of the 318 saintly and blessed fathers who were assembled at Nicaea when Constantine of pious memory was emperor: and that those decrees also remain in force which were issued in Constantinople by the 150 holy fathers in order to destroy the heresies then rife and to confirm this same catholic and apostolic creed. The creed of the 318 fathers at Nicaea. And the same of the 150 saintly fathers assembled in Constantinople. This wise and saving creed, the gift of divine grace, was sufficient for a perfect understanding and establishment of religion. For its teaching about the Father and the Son and the holy Spirit is complete, and it sets out the Lord’s becoming human to those who faithfully accept it. But there are those who are trying to ruin the proclamation of the truth, and through their private heresies they have spawned novel formulas: some by daring to corrupt the mystery of the Lord’s economy on our behalf, and refusing to apply the word “God-bearer” to the Virgin; and others by introducing a confusion and mixture, and mindlessly imagining that there is a single nature of the flesh and the divinity, and fantastically supposing that in the confusion the divine nature of the Only-begotten is passible. Therefore this sacred and great and universal synod, now in session, in its desire to exclude all their tricks against the truth, and teaching what has been unshakeable in the proclamation from the beginning, decrees that the creed of the 318 fathers is, above all else, to remain inviolate. And because of those who oppose the holy Spirit, it ratifies the teaching about the being of the holy Spirit handed down by the 150 saintly fathers who met some time later in the imperial city the teaching they made known to all, not introducing anything left out by their predecessors, but clarifying their ideas about the holy Spirit by the use of scriptural testimonies against those who were trying to do away with his sovereignty. And because of those who are attempting to corrupt the mystery of the economy and are shamelessly and foolishly asserting that he who was born of the holy virgin Mary was a mere man, it has accepted
  • the synodical letters of the blessed Cyril, [already accepted by the Council of Ephesus] pastor of the church in Alexandria, to Nestorius and to the Orientals, as being well-suited to refuting Nestorius’s mad folly and to providing an interpretation for those who in their religious zeal might desire understanding of the saving creed.
  • To these it has suitably added, against false believers and for the establishment of orthodox doctrines the letter of the primate of greatest and older Rome, the most blessed and most saintly Archbishop Leo, written to the sainted Archbishop Flavian to put down Eutyches’s evil-mindedness, because it is in agreement with great Peter’s confession and represents a support we have in common.
It is opposed to those who attempt to tear apart the mystery of the economy into a duality of sons; and
  • it expels from the assembly of the priests those who dare to say that the divinity of the Only-begotten is passible, and
  • it stands opposed to those who imagine a mixture or confusion between the two natures of Christ; and
  • it expels those who have the mad idea that the servant-form he took from us is of a heavenly or some other kind of being; and
  • it anathematises those who concoct two natures of the Lord before the union but imagine a single one after the union.
Následujíce božské otce učíme se všichni jednomyslně vyznávati jednoho a téhož Syna, Pána našeho Ježíše Krista, dokonalého podle božství a dokonalého podle člověčenství, pravého Boha a pravého člověka, téhož duše i těla; jedné bytosti s Otcem podle božství a jedné bytosti také s námi podle člověčenství; ve všem nám podobného kromě hříchu; narozeného před věky od Otce podle božství, v poslední však dny téhož narozeného pro nás a pro naše spasení z Marie Panny Bohorodice podle člověčenství; jednoho a téhož Krista Syna, Pána, jednorozeného, kterého poznáváme
  • ve dvou přirozenostech
  • nesplývajících,
  • neměnných,
  • nerozlučných,
  • [neoddelitelných],
neboť spojením nikterak nebyl rozdíl obou přirozeností odstraněn, ale naopak se uchovává vlastnost každé přirozenosti, spojující se do jedné osoby a jedné hypostase, který se neštěpí ani nerozděluje na dvě osobnosti, nýbrž je jeden a týž Syn a jednorozený Bůh Slovo, Pán Ježíš Kristus, jak dávno proroci o něm a jak sám Pán Ježíš Kristus nás učil, jakož nám též předal symbol otců našich. Keďže sme toto rozhodnutie vypracovali s veľkou a všestrannou obozretnosťou a starostlivosťou, posvätný a ekumenický koncil stanovil, že nikto nesmie inú vieru prednášať, napísať, zložiť, prechovávať alebo učiť iných. A kto by sa odvážil zložiť inú vieru alebo prinášal, učil či ďalej odovzdával iný Symbol pre tých, čo si prajú obrátiť sa k poznání víry od pohanství, židovství nebo z heréz jakéhokoliv směru, buďtež, jsou-li biskupy, zbaveni biskupské hodnosti, a jsou-li duchovními, vyloučeni ze stavu duchovního; jsou-li mnísi alebo laici, buďtež dáni do klatby.